# Blog Posts

Technical Blogs

### Convergence In FEA – What Should We Look Out For?

Finite element analysis (FEA) has significantly transformed the approach of engineers and scientists to design and analyze various physical systems. It has emerged as a formidable tool for enhancing designs and detecting possible problems by providing valuable insights into system behavior without the need for costly and time-consuming physical prototypes. However, while simulating physical system

Technical Blogs

### Random Vibrations In FEA – What Are They And How Do We Assess Them?

Random vibrations subject a component to non-deterministic motion which cannot be analyzed precisely. The mode shapes and natural frequencies remain the same for the component and randomness is an inherent characteristic of the input excitation. They present a significant challenge to engineers trying to meet design margins. Some examples for random vibrations are: Automobile driving

Technical Blogs

### What Is Modal Analysis In FEA? And How Do We Extract Modal Frequency?

Frequency is an important aspect for mechanical systems, which can be used to predict the behavior of systems under different dynamic conditions. The reliability and performance of the mechanical systems can be optimized, and potential design issues can be identified by analyzing its frequency response. Every physical system has natural frequencies associated with it, which

Technical Blogs

### Stress Singularities At Reentrant Corners – A Fundamental Problem In FEA

Typically, as you make your mesh finer, your stress converges to its nominal value (see this blog for an example!). However, this may not always be the case. Below we have a round shaft loaded in tension with different mesh sizes: As you can see, as the mesh gets finer, the maximum stress continues to

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### Ductile Damage Modeling In FEA – What Is It And How Does It Work?

The ability of any material to carry mechanical, thermal, or electrical loads is limited. Permanent damage occurs to the material when it is loaded beyond its capacity to recover. When the material is subjected to external loading, the atoms and/or molecules move and rearrange causing strain. If the strain is within elastic limit, the material

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### Contact In FEA – What Is It And How Should It Be Implemented?

Contacts are an essential part of model definitions in a multibody analysis. These problems are commonly encountered in engineering scenarios such as assemblies with moving parts like seals, gears, pins, punches, rollers, bearings etc. Once contact occurs between two bodies, they can interact in different ways. Bonded, friction, frictionless, no separation, rough contact are a

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### Stress And Strain – What Are They And What Is Their Relationship

Stress and strain are fundamental concepts in engineering used to describe the mechanical behavior of materials under various loading conditions. Understanding stress and strain is crucial in designing and analyzing structures, as it allows engineers to predict how materials will behave and it ensures that these materials can withstand their real-world applications. Strain, the underlying

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### Strain Tensors In FEA – What Are They And How Are They Derived From Displacements?

When we are using FEA software like Abaqus to solve a mechanical problem, we have the output in terms of displacements, stresses, strains, energies etc. To calculate the numerical values for these physical quantities, the solver has to process sets of linear and nonlinear equations in terms of degrees of freedom of the physical system.

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### What Is Quenching And Tempering In Metals â€“ And How Does It Work

Quenching and tempering is a heat treatment process used to improve the mechanical properties of metals and alloys. The process involves heating the material to a high temperature, then cooling it rapidly (quenching), followed by reheating it to a lower temperature (tempering). This combination of heating, cooling, and reheating produces significant changes in the microstructure

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### Types Of Nonlinearity In Finite Element Analysis â€“ And Why You Might Want To Consider Them

Finite element analysis (FEA) solvers such as Abaqus are powerful tools for predicting the behavior of structures under load, but it’s important to remember that the assumptions of linearity underlying FEA can break down under certain conditions. When that happens, the results of the analysis may not accurately represent the real-world behavior of the structure.